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Annals of Theoretical Psychology by Arthur W. Staats (auth.), Arthur W. Staats, Leendert P. Mos

By Arthur W. Staats (auth.), Arthur W. Staats, Leendert P. Mos (eds.)

I were curious about developing a unified thought for a few years, in contemplating the country of psychology's unity-disunity, and in commonly test­ ing to cajole our career to paintings on its unification. during this paintings i've got had the chance to develop into accustomed to the works of a couple of different psychologists whose statements indicated they'd whatever to assert on those subject matters. I observed additionally that it might be very efficient for psychology to have those participants deal with themselves to psychology's disunity-unity, consid­ ered as an issue that are meant to be faced and addressed. In 1983 i started to point that it used to be my goal to dedicate a booklet to the subject, as obvious in the course of the eyes of a gaggle of fashionable psychologists desirous about comparable concerns. It used to be very lucky from my perspective that Joseph Royce and later Leendert Mos, who have been enhancing this sequence, have been drawn to this publication. I authorised the former's invitation to do in the current sequence the booklet I had deliberate. even supposing i have to suppose accountability for collection of the participants, for the book's association, and for the 1st modifying in their papers for substance, professional­ fessor Mos provided to aid in a piece of writing skill and i'm so much thankful for his contributions to the formal enhancing. the amount is far more advantageous due to his cautious efforts, which in a single case concerned rewriting material.

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Freud specialized in the conduct of psychotherapy of a particular type. His data emerged from this work. Piaget specialized in the systematic observation of the way in which children of different ages responded to certain cognitive tasks. Skinner's systematic work was almost entirely in the study of animals' responses in the operant conditioning chamber, with some additional work in the area of programmed instruction and teaching machines. In each case the method was systematically to study in some particular area of psychology and then to generalize the theory that resulted to the rest of psychology.

With the assumption of perfect objectivity went a personification of the scientist as a selfless, disinterested person, guided only by the logical and empirical nature of the subject matter. Sociologists of science (Merton, 1973) and philosophers of science (Toulmin, 1972) have disabused us of such ideal notions. Moreover, Kuhn (1962) and others of the Weltanschauung school of philosophy have asserted that the background conceptions and worldview of scientists affect their conduct of science. The concept is very similar to that of Boring's (1950) Zeitgeist and serves to widen our view of what science is about in important ways, as we shall see.

Some psychologists reject 20 Arthur W. Staats knowledge gained on the basis of clinical observations of behavior because it does not meet their standards of what constitutes science. Some psychologists reject the knowledge of the field of psychological measurement. Others feel that human behavior has emergent qualities and that studying animal behavior is irrelevant for human psychology. Most methods of study involve assumptions that are accepted by their users and rejected by others. Centrally, work employing the opposing methods produces knowledge that is antagonistic and inconsistant (Staats, 1983a).

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