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Algae by Linda E. Graham

By Linda E. Graham

present, entire, and with no trouble available to all readers despite their wisdom at the topic, this information-packed source on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial algae types makes a speciality of what humans really need to know approximately algae—why they're so various; how they're comparable; the best way to distinguish the main kinds; their roles in foodstuff webs, international biogeochemical biking; the formation of damaging algae bloom; and the way we make the most of them. offers a stimulating review of the significance of algae. Covers biotic institutions related to algae, with discussions on herbivory interactions, algal meals caliber, symbioses, pathogeneic interactions, and extra. Considers the commercial, ecological, and biotechnological functions of algae, and gives whole assurance on algal biodiversity, category platforms, molecular phylogenetics, and alertness of molecular details to ecological difficulties. deals an in depth learn on endosymbiosis. and comprises in depth, stand-alone chapters on cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, ochrophytes, crimson algae, eco-friendly algae, and phytoplankton ecology. Covers new analytical concepts (i.e. molecular phylogenetics, DNA-based ways to the examine of existence cycles, and fluorescence equipment for the research for photosynthesis); integrates many attention-grabbing boxed essays; and complements fabric with a number of photographs and illustrations. For researchers and execs within the fields of aquatic ecology and technological software of algae.

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Chlorophyll a and accessory and protective pigments-phycobilins and carot- enoids-are present, associated with membranous thylakoids. Some members of the group-the prochlorophytes-also possess chlorophyll b. The photosynthetic storage products include an a-1,4-glucan known as cyanophytan starch. Among autotrophs, cyanobacterial cells are unique in being prokaryotic in organization, hence typical eukaryotic flagella and organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nuclei) are lacking. Cyanobacteria are common and diverse in both freshwaters and the sea.

Those having a high value of 'tare less susceptible to oxygenase activity, and include reds, cryptomonads, and ochrophytes. Algal groups having a lower 't value are more susceptible to oxygenase activity, and include cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Green algae fall within the middle of this range (Raven, 1997b). A third adaptation to reduced C02 and increased 0 2 levels was the development in algae of carbon Chapter 2-The Roles of Algae in Biogeochemistry concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). These vary among algae, but all serve to increase the supply of C0 2 to Rubisco.

Mounds of calcareous Halimeda remains up to 52 m thick have been recorded from the shelf behind the northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and other locations (Tucker and Wright, 1990). The process by which algae produce calcium carbonate is known as calcification, but the exact mechanism by which they accomplish and control calcium carbonate deposition is unknown. Moreover, the advantages of algal calcification are poorly understood, though calcification may protect coralline red algae from herbivory (Chapter 16).

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