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Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, by Clifford J. Studman

By Clifford J. Studman

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Aneroids are frequently used in association with aerial photographs to survey and establish pipeline routes and hydraulic gradients over relatively long distances, both for on-farm distribution of water, and for rural water supply schemes. 5 metre. Aneroids are also often used by surveyors for obtaining levels in remote areas, but their shortcomings, the need to use them in the correct way, and the methods of applying corrections should be understood. 1 Principle The fact which makes barometric surveying possible is that atmospheric pressure drops at a known rate as the height increases.

077 m b. What would the RL be if the angle was negative (ie, the shot was downhill)? EDM instrument Modulated light beam Figure 2 . 2 1 Principle of measuring (EDM) system. 57 Electro-optical Retro-reflector distance Agricultural and horticultural engineeñng retro-reflector, push a button, and the location of the point is logged and calculated automatically. This data is also recorded electronically, so that it can be loaded into a computer linked to a plotter. Thus a plan can be drawn without the need of the surveyor's pencil once!

9 another reading. This time the value is an intermediate sight and is entered in the IS column. The rise or fall should then be calculated and entered. If the reading goes up then the ground has FALLEN; if the reading is less the ground has RISEN. 2). The reduced level is then calculated immediately, and written in the column. Any remarks are added (eg, point 1, BM etc). 2). This procedure is repeated until all the points have been surveyed, or until it is necessary to shift the instrument in order to obtain further measurements.

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