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A Study of History: Illustrated by Arnold Toynbee

By Arnold Toynbee

This one-volume 576-page variation of A learn OF heritage places the essence of the good paintings into simply obtainable and most enticing shape. (The unique totals greater than 7,000 pages.) additionally, as Dr. Toynbee's foreword makes transparent, the hot booklet is greater than an abridgment of the unique. He has greatly redrafted, revised, and up to date his heritage, to have in mind new old occasions and discoveries and to incorporate his personal 'reconsiderations' of his ideas. the hot variation is usually the 1st to be illustrated. There are greater than 500 ancient photos, many reproduced in colour and all chosen by means of Dr. Toynbee with the help of Jane Caplan, his collaborator at the undertaking. leave out Caplan has written the wonderful captions for the photographs, that are heavily coordinated with the textual content. the following, in sum, is a superb historical past and nice scholarly paintings, in splendidly readable shape.

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A Study of History: Illustrated

This one-volume 576-page version of A learn OF background places the essence of the nice paintings into simply available and most enticing shape. (The unique totals greater than 7,000 pages. ) in addition, as Dr. Toynbee's foreword makes transparent, the recent e-book is greater than an abridgment of the unique. He has largely redrafted, revised, and up to date his historical past, to bear in mind new old occasions and discoveries and to incorporate his personal 'reconsiderations' of his techniques.

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The powers, including England, realized that the partition plan they had worked out had come to naught and that France would be in full possession of the immense Spanish inheritance; the Netherlands was alarmed by the 28 Histories advance of French troops into Flanders, which it viewed as a possible preliminary move in a new reach for the Rhine frontier. The result was a treaty, concluded September 7, 1701, at the Hague among England, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire; by its terms, the Empire obtained rights to the Spanish inheritance, and England and Holland secured rights to free navigation and trade.

Both Leopold I of Austria and Louis XIV of France had a good case to present as each had married a sister of Charles of Spain. Louis had married the older one, with promises of a rich dowry in exchange for which he renounced any claim to the throne of Spain. However, the dowry was never paid, putting the validity of the renunciation in question. Leopold had married the younger sister but, because the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburg branches were permanently separated, he could not inherit the throne himself; he could, however, claim it for his son Charles, just as Louis XIV claimed it for his grandson Philip.

It remains a matter for debate whether the religious cleavage was primarily responsible for the periods of upheaval, both in Austrian lands and in the Holy Roman Empire (even such a staunchly Catholic ruler as Charles V had a number of Protestants in his camp and his brother Ferdinand was tireless in trying to reconcile religious differences), or whether doctrinal quarrels merely raised existing controversies over territory and sovereignty to critical levels. The war that began in 1618 and rapidly escalated to a full-fledged confrontation between Catholic and Protestant forces is generally cited as the culmination of the passions and conflicts that grew out of the Protestant revolt, but, while religious furor no doubt accounted for the ferocity with which it was waged, political rivalries in the end superseded the religious.

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