By Juan Diego Quesada
This can be the 1st finished description of the grammatical constitution of Teribe, a language of Panama, and a member of the Chibchan relatives of languages, which covers a large region starting from Northeastern Honduras, in the course of the Atlantic of Nicaragua, so much of Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, to the West of Venezuela. Spoken via a few 1,000 humans, Teribe is at the present probably, even though now not seriously, endangered. This grammar fills a lacuna in a twofold demeanour: it offers an in depth account of the constitution of Teribe, and in doing so, it reduces the variety of vital American Chibchan languages being undescribed. This grammar is therefore meant as a contribution to the outline of the language at 3 degrees: a. language-immanent; b. Chibchan comparative grammar; c. documentation of endangered languages, particularly these of the yank continent. Teribe is either a transparent consultant of the "Central American" positive aspects of the Chibchan languages (numeral classifiers, restricted contract, no evidentials), and idiosyncratic inside those languages (having such phenomena as an inverse building and verb serialization). The examine for this booklet used to be funded in its entirety through the Social Sciences and arts examine Council of Canada.
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Extra resources for A grammar of Teribe
H. Sailhammer of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Deerfield, Illinois, which restricts its practicability). This study makes the same mistake of lumping all 'discourse' material into a single category; in the context of pointing the reader in the direction of language universals, den Exter Blokland writes, 'Linguistic reseach of the past thirty odd years has shown that texts themselves show patterns in their composition that arise from the nature of the medium language [I suspect his point would have been more clearly made had he enclosed in quotation marks the word 'language'] rather than from text-genre combined with the author's literary freedom alone.
108, 160'. 3. Khan, Studies, pp. xxxiii ff. 4. Khan, Studies, p. xxxiii. 5. Or my 'text'; see below, this chapter, and the following. 6 Khan's work is restrained, and, although he does not claim to be describing the macro-syntax of any of the languages he works on, he describes very well the text-level functions of these features. Had he chosen to work 'from the top down',7 he would have had to consider many more syntactic features than he has done, describing each as an option available for use at the higher levels; however, working 'from the bottom up' 8 allows him to describe only these particular features; he need only describe the function of his chosen constructions, noting their effect on—and their function in—higher-level units.
Or equiv. In this case the predicated Noun Phrase is a personal pronoun, which is modified by a relative clause (which is left incomplete in our example, but which will follow its own rules of constituent structure). There is no need to propose a shift of predicate to subject and vice versa: properly written rules forestall the need to redefine basic terms. I do not share Niccacci's confidence in the finality of his results, as evidenced by his statement, 'scrutiny of a wider selection of texts might contribute further refinements but I do not envisage major modifications'.